First Information Report (FIR)
An FIR is a very important document as it is one of the first steps towards justice for the wronged. Police take up investigation of the case only after registering the FIR in their respective police station.
Essential Elements of a valid FIR
The recording officer and the complainant should know to the extent possible, the 11 Ws while recording / reporting the FIR.
1. W – What information has come to convey?
2. W – In what capacity?
3. W – Who committed crime?
4. W – Whom against crime committed?
5. W – When (Time)?
6. W – Where (Place)?
7. W – Why (Motive)?
8. W – Which way (actual occurrence)?
9. W – Witnesses.
10. W – What was taken away?
11. W – What traces were left by the accused?
Who can file an FIR?
Anyone who is either a victim of a crime, or has witnessed a crime or has information regarding a crime may file an FIR.
What is a Zero FIR?
A Zero FIR allows for any police station to register an FIR, regardless of their jurisdictional area. It is usually used for crimes such as murder and rape and other cognizable offences, i.e. an offence for which police can take action without prior court approval.
Initial action and investigation is conducted before it is transferred to the appropriate jurisdictional station as required. It is helpful for filing FIR for the crimes that require immediate response as it allows for swifter action that is not bogged down by bureaucratic procedure as well as accounts for whether the police station under whose jurisdiction the crime was committed is not easily accessible.